Calculating the square value of a number is a very straightforward

process which consists of multiplying this number by itself. For instance:

15^{2} = 15 x 15 = 225

The reverse operation which consists of calculating the square root of a number is not so easy without using the square root function of a calculator. In this blog post we will investigate how to accurately calculate the square root of a number using Python and we will then implement and compare two methods that were used a few centuries ago to estimate the square root value of any given number:

- The Babylonian Method,
- The Bakhshali Method.

#### Exponentiation

High level programming languages such as Python have an arithmetic operator to raise a number to the power of an exponent.

In **pseudocode **the **exponentiation operator **is the **^ operator**.

For instance: 3^{2} appears as 3^2 when using pseudocode.

In **Python**, the **exponentiation operator** is ******. e.g.:

# 5 to the power of 2 is 25 square = 5 ** 2 # 5 to the power of 3 is 125 cube = 5 ** 3

#### Square Root = To the power of half

We can easily calculate the square root of a number in a computer program using the exponentiation operator knowing that:

√x = x^{½} = x^{0.5}

So in Python:

# Square root of 25 is... sqrt = 25 ** 0.5

#### The Babylonian method

Procedures for calculating/estimating square roots have been known since at least the period of ancient Babylon in the 17th century BCE. **Heron’s method (aka Babylonian method)** from first century Egypt was the first ascertainable algorithm for computing square root.

This approach is based on estimating the limit of the following convergent sequence:

To implement the Babylonian method of estimating a square root we will use the following algorithm:

#### Python Code

Use the above flowchart to complete the code below:

#### The Bakhshali method

This method for finding an approximation to a square root was described in an ancient Indian mathematical manuscript called the Bakhshali manuscript. It uses a similare approach the Babylonian method using a different convergent series as described below:

Your task is to adapt your Python script to implement the Bakhshali method and compare how both series perform to estimate a square root value using a fixed number of iterations.

#### Solution...

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